Beyond Genocide Companion Resource Guide

This Reference Guide is updated periodically as new material is released, and when I have time to research and add to or revise the guide.



Encycopedia of Genocide: Israel W. Charny Editor. ABC-CLIO, 2000 This encyclopedia features 200+ entries covering all known genocides up to date of publication, each entry leads to further information.

Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction: Adam Jones Routeledge Press 2006 . As the title suggests this is a comprehensive overview of genocide, its definition and cases outlines from around the world. A good companion reader for introduction to factual information about many important mass atrocities as well as current theory.

A Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts: Samuel Totten and William S. Parsons. Routledge Press 2009. Century of Genocide is comprised of critical essays by some of the most noted scholars in the field of genocide studies about various genocidal acts committed during the course of the 20th and 21st centuries. Each essay is accompanied by oral testimony about the genocide.

A Problem from Hell, America and the Age of Genocide: Samantha Power Harper Perennial 2003. Power, a former journalist offers an uncompromising and disturbing examination of 20th Century acts of genocide and U.S. responses to them. This is a well-researched and powerfully written historical analysis and call to action on genocide and U.S. role in facilitating mass murder.

Genocide Watch: Helen Fein Yale University Press 1992. This work focuses on the question of what can be done to conduit world consciousness to play a constructive role in preventing genocide.

Statistics of Democide Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900: R.J. Rummel Transaction Publishers Rutgers University 1997. This double volume is a collection of descriptive statistics of the myriad mass murders which have occurred on the planet since 1900. Estimated numbers of victims are calculated, case by case in tabulation tables which quantify and qualify estimated total numbers of deaths due to mass murder.

Genocide: A Sociological Perspective: Dr. Helen Fein Sage Publications 1993. The current understanding of genocide’s definition, causation and prevention is summarized before this text ranges across the social sciences in its search for explanations and across the world for examples. It provides a critical review which aims to advance beyond existing knowledge of genocide.

Genocide: an Anthropological Reader : Alex Laban Hinton Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Genocide: An Anthropological Reader” lays the foundation for a ground-breaking “anthropology of genocide” by gathering together for the first time the seminal texts for learning about and understanding this phenomenon. While scholars in other fields have conducted excellent analyses of the macro level factors facilitating genocide, few have been able to approach genocide from the local perspective. By filling this important niche-pulling together key anthropological and interdisciplinary sources on genocide – “Genocide: An Anthropological Reader” stands both to make an important contribution to our understanding of genocide and to serve as a valuable resource for readers across a wide variety of fields.

TheHistory and Sociology of Genocide Analyses and Case Studies: Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn: Yale University Press 1990. Two dozen examples of mass slaughter of peoples, spanning the centuries from antiquity to the date of publication. Analyses of political and social victimization challenge the UN convention on Genocide’s definition in the case studies explored in this book.

Teaching About Genocide: An Interdisciplinary Guidebook with Syllabi for College and University Teachers Helen Fein and Joyce Apsel: Washington: Amer Sociological Association 2002

Dictionary of Genocide: Paul R. Bartrop and Samuel Totten Greenwood Pub Group 2007

Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches and Resources: Samuel Totten Information Age Publishing 2004


The Genocide Factor: Films Media Group a 4 part series, 57 minutes each; examining the complex dimensions of mass killings from biblical times through current atrocities. Includes (and can be viewed separately): Genocide from Biblical Times Through the Ages: Genocide in the First Half of the 20th Century : Never Again? Genocide Since the Holocaust: Genocide: The Horror Continues.

Scream Bloody Murder: Special Report from CNN: Christine Amanpour. CNN’s chief international correspondent offers an eyes wide open analysis of genocide in our age. This gritty but unflinching documentary offers instruction in the “world’s most feared crime.” Amanpour’s experience in the field lends eyewitness urgency to the material.

The Reckoning: The Epic Story of the Battle for the International Criminal Court Pamela Yates Skylight Pictures 2009. The Reckoning follows ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo and his team for three years across four continents as he issues arrest warrants for Lord’s Resistance Army leaders in Uganda, puts Congolese warlords on trial and charges Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir with genocide in Darfur. Will the world ensure that justice prevails? An”Offical Selection” of the 2009 Sundance Film Festival.


Archaeology of Afghanistan : From Earliest Times to the Timurid Period F. R. Allchin, N.Hammond (Editor) Academic Press

Afghanistan, A Country Study Sally Ann Baynard, Laurie Krieger, Robert S. Ford, Donald M. Seekins, Samuel Hayfield Publisher: United States Government

Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan Ludwig W. Adamec Publisher: Scarecrow Press: This third edition of the Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan provides researchers with updated information and considerable new material. It includes entries on major historical events, important places, leading personalities – past and present – and significant aspects of the country’s culture, religion, and economy. The introduction contains an outline of Afghanistan’s political history, an appendix includes a number of documents, and a comprehensive bibliography introduces the reader to additional sources.


Afghan Star: Havana Marking—UK—2008—87m—doc. In English and Dari and Pashtun with English subtitles. After 30 years of war and the Taliban’s repression, Afghan Pop Idol is taking the nation by storm. But this is more than just a TV show. In Afghanistan you risk your life to sing. Pop culture has returned to Afghanistan. Over 2000 people are auditioning for Afghan Pop Idol and even three women have come forward to try their luck. But in this troubled country, even music is dangerously controversial. Many of those taking part are literally risking their lives. Yet millions of people watch the show and vote by text from their mobile phone for their favorite singers. We meet Rafi, a boy from Mazar-e-Sharif with a strong voice and a pretty face, Lima, a young woman from Kandahar who fears for her life every time she goes home, Hammeed, a young musician and classically trained singer from the Hazara ethnic group, and Setara, a controversial figure from Herat who wears the latest fashions and Bollywood make up. Winner World Cinema Audience Award: Documentary and World Cinema Directing Award: Documentary, Sundance Film Festival 2009.

Kabuli Kid: Barmak Akram—Afghanistan/France—2008—94m—drama. In Dari with English subtitles.Barmak Akram’s incisive look at daily life in Kabul follows the adventures of a taxi driver and his new found ward.Kabul—a city struggling to recover from 25 years of warfare. When taxi driver Khaled picks up a passenger with her baby, his life takes an unexpected turn. With the mother’s identity concealed behind a long blue burqa, she abandons her baby in the back seat of his car. Attempting to find the mother, Khaled goes to the local police office and to an orphanage, but is met with indifference and obstacles at every turn.  Kabuli Kid is a wonderfully chaotic often comic tale of daily life in Kabul. Official selection, Toronto International Film Festival 2008.

Beyond Belief This film is a feature documentary directed by Beth Murphy. The film follows Susan Retik and Patti Quigley, two women who lost their husbands on September 11, 2001, as they set up humanitarian programs for war widows in Afghanistan. It premiered at the 2007 Tribeca Film Festival.


Afghanistan: Hidden Treasures from the National Musem, Kabul: Travelling across the US in 2009 these artifacts represent a secretly rescued collection of historical artifacts once housed in the Kabul Museum which became under threat of destruction by conflict.


The Kingdom of Armenia: A History M. Chahin Edition 2, illustrated, annotated, revised Publisher Routledge, 2001.While the majority of contemporary works on Armenia concentrate on the modern era, The Kingdom of Armenia takes its beginning in the third century BC, with the ancient literate peoples of Mesopotamia who had commercial interests in the land, and continues with a comprehensive overview through to the end of the Middle Ages.

The ArmeniansAnne Elizabeth Redgate Edition illustrated, reprint PublisherWiley-Blackwell, 2000This is a 3000 year history of one of Europe’s most fascinating and important peoples. Situated on the south-east coast of the Black Sea, Armenia has been a pivotal point between the forces of the east and of the west over most of its long history. That history has thus been very largely one of conquest by rival empires. The flourishing of an independent and powerful Armenian society in the last three centuries before Christ was dissipated by successive invasions of Romans, Parthians and Persians. Armenian culture, as the author shows, has survived in enclaves throughout Europe, the Middle East and the United States. The book closes with a consideration of Armenia’s first experience of independence after a gap of 1000 years. Redgate’s vivid, analytical narrative is illustrated with numerous photographs and maps.

The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response Peter Balakian Edition reprint Publisher Harper Collins, 2004 In this national bestseller, the critically acclaimed author Peter Balakian brings us a riveting narrative of the massacres of the Armenians in the 1890s and of the Armenian Genocide in 1915 at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. Using rarely seen archival documents and remarkable first-person accounts, Balakian presents the chilling history of how the Turkish government implemented the first modern genocide behind the cover of World War I. And in the telling, he resurrects an extraordinary lost chapter of American history. Awarded the Raphael Lemkin Prize for the best scholarly book on genocide by the Institute for Genocide Studies at John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY Graduate Center.

The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians Donald Bloxham Oxford University Press 2007 The Great Game of Genocide addresses the origins, development and aftermath of the Armenian genocide in a wide-ranging reappraisal based on primary and secondary sources from all the major parties involved. Rejecting the determinism of many influential studies, and discarding polemics on all sides, it founds its interpretation of the genocide in the interaction between the Ottoman empire in its decades of terminal decline, the self-interested policies of the European imperial powers, and the agenda of some Armenian nationalists in and beyond Ottoman territory.


Ararat: Atom Egoyan 2002A film within a film, this is a contemporary story of the making of a historical epic about the Armenian genocide claims between 1915 and 1918. The story line follows how making the film transforms the life of an 18-year-old man hired as a driver on the production. The Armenian genocide claims are not accepted by the Turkish side. Turkey calls Armenians to prove their claims by scientific historical documents. Written by thecloudy


National Gallery of Armenia Located at Hanrapetutyan Hraparak (Republic Square), Yerevan (+374-10) 58-08-12, 56-18-12


Genocide in East Pakistan/Bangladesh: A Horror StoryS.K. Bhattacharyya(A. Ghosh Publishers, 1988).

Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape Susan Brownmiller Fawcett Books, 1993 reprint edition As powerful and timely now as when it was first published, AGAINST OUR WILL stands as a unique document of the history of politics, the sociology of rape and the inherent and ingrained inequality of men and women under the law. In lucid, persuasive prose, Brownmiller has created a definitive, devastating work of lasting social importance.

Death By Government R.J Rummel (Transaction Publishers, 1997)One of the most detailed treatments of the genocide in Bangladesh.”

War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh Richard Sisson; Leo E. Rose (University of California Press, 1991. “One of the best recent pieces of scholarship on the war and genocide in East Pakistan/Bangladesh.”

Rabindranath Tagore: An Anthology  St. Martin’s Press 1997: “Tagore, who was a great master of words, seems to me to have spoken about language, and its connection with social and political life, with acute insight, and what he said has great interest for us today”. –Isaiah Berlin


“Shei Rater Kotha Bolte Eshechi” (“Tale of the Darkest Night”)(2001, 43 min), Bangladesh,director Kawsar Chowdhury:Tale of the Darkest Night tells the story of the killings by the Pakistani army in Dhaka University. Surviving members and witnesses speak, and bring alive the havoc of that night. The documentary also includes the wireless messages the Pakistani army exchanged that night which a Bengali engineer accidentally stumbled upon and recorded while trying to tune in to the BBC for news of the crackdown in his country.


A History of Cambodia: David Chandler: Westview Press 2007: In this clear and concise volume, author David Chandler provides a timely overview of Cambodia, a small but increasingly visible Southeast Asian nation. Praised by the Journal of Asian Studies as an “original contribution, superior to any other existing work,” this acclaimed text has now been completely revised and updated to include material examining the early history of Cambodia, whose famous Angkorean ruins now attract more than one million tourists each year, the death of Pol Pot, and the revolution and final collapse of the Khmer Rouge.

Genocide in Cambodia: Pol Pot; Ieng Sary; Howard J. De Nike: John B. Quigley; Kenneth Hay Robinson; University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000 Genocide in Cambodia assembles documents from this historic trial and contains extensive reports from the People’s Revolutionary Tribunal. The book opens with essays that discuss the nature of the primary documents, and places the trial in its historical, legal, and political context. The documents are divided into three parts: those relating to the establishment of the tribunal; those used as evidence, including statements of witnesses, investigative reports of mass grave sites, expert opinions on the social and cultural impact of the actions of Pol Pot and Ieng Sary, and accounts from the foreign press; and finally the record of the trial, beginning with the prosecutor’s indictment and ending with the concluding speeches by the attorneys for the defense and prosecution.

First They Killed my Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers: Loung Ung: Harper Collins 2001 When Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge army stormed into Phnom Penh in April 1975, Ung’s family was forced to flee their home and hide their previous life of privilege. Eventually, they dispersed in order to survive. Loung was trained as a child soldier in a work camp for orphans while her other siblings were sent to labor camps.

Sacred Vows: U. Sam Oeur:Coffee House Press 1998: In 1975, U Sam Oeur and his family along with 2.8 million citizens of Phnom Penh were driven out of the city by the Khmer Rouge. During the next four years, the family survived life in six different concentration camps. Sacred Vows retells the recent terror of Cambodia and the beauty of its culture using myths, prophecies, and history of the tradition as ironic counterpoint to Cambodia’s present-day situation.


The Killing Fields (1984): Murray Chapman Sydney Schanberg is a New York Times journalist covering the civil war in Cambodia. Together with local representative Dith Pran, they cover some of the tragedy and madness of the war. When the American forces leave, Dith Pran sends his family with them, but stays behind himself to help Schanberg cover the event. As an American, Schanberg won’t have any trouble leaving the country, but the situation is different for Pran; he’s a local, and the Khmer Rouge are moving in.

The Secrets of S-21: Legacy of a Cambodian PrisonDocumentary Berkeley University: In this documentary, two American photographers piece together the details of the genocide that took place at S-21 through thousands of photo, interviews with former prison guards and prisoners.

Cambodian Genocide Project, Yale University: Listings of 11 documentary films covering aspects of the Cambodian Genocide:


Sculpture of Angkor and Ancient Cambodia: National Gallery of Art, Washington DC: Cambodia’s artistic legacy has been largely inaccessible to the West owing to decades of political turbulence and isolation. This exhibition, made possible by recent peace accords, brings together one hundred masterpieces from the world’s two greatest collections of Khmer sculpture: the National Museum of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and the Musée national des Arts asiatiques-Guimet, Paris, with a few additional loans from other museums. It is the first exhibition in the United States to reveal the richness of Cambodian sculpture during the great millennium of Khmer culture.


Where Elephants Weep: A Khmer Rock Opera Sam, a refugee from the Khmer Rough genocide, leaves America and returns to his homeland, Cambodia. Committed to finding his roots in his native culture, he unexpectedly falls in love with Bopha. A Cambodian pop-star. The music fuses traditional Cambodian music with Western rock and rap. The opera is sung in English and Khmer, with surtitles in both languages.


China’s Bloody Century: R.J. Rummel: Transaction Publishers, 2007

China in War and Revolution, 1895 – 1945 Peter Gue Zarrow: Routeledge, 2005 In 1895 the military forces of the Great Qing Empire were defeated by Japan. The stakes seemed modest – a struggle for supremacy in peripheral Korea – but the defeat prompted an explosion of radical reform proposals in China and the beginning of elite Chinese disillusionment with the Qing government. In a larger sense, it also prompted five decades of efforts to strengthen the state and the nation, to democratize the political system, and to build a fairer and more unified society. The book weaves narrative together with thematic chapters that pause to address in depth central themes of China’s transformation. While the book proceeds chronologically, the chapters in each part examine particular aspects of these decades in a more focused way, borrowing from the methodologies of the social sciences, cultural studies and empirical historicism. China in War and Revolution draws a picture of the personalities,ideas, and processes by which a modern state was created out of the violence and trauma of thedecade.

Death by Government: R.J. Rummel; Transaction Publishers 1997Power Kills, absolute power kills absolutely. It is advised to get the readers attention in first sentence. Professor Rummel takes that advice to heart in the opening sentence, following on Lord Acton’s famous quote. This book is a census of the people who have been murdered by governments and why. He explains his thesis in the first chapter and the rest of the book is a review of the governmental deka-murders mega-murders, i.e. ten or one millions.

Rape of Nanking: Iris Chang Public Affairs, 1997 In December 1937, flush with confidence from their victories over the Nationalists in Beijing and Shanghai, the Japanese Army swept into Nanking and, over the next seven weeks, looted and burned the city and systematically raped, brutalized, and murdered more than 250,000 defenseless civilians. Officially denied by the Japanese government, the story of this atrocity has been suppressed for more than half a century. Now Iris Chang, a Chinese-American writer whose own grandparents survived the massacre, reveals the full horror of their experience and puts a human face on one of the century’s worst horrors. Chang tells the story from three very different perspectives — that of the Chinese who endured it; the Japanese soldiers who performed it; and that of a heroic group of European and American businessmen and clergy living in Nanking.

Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine Jasper Becker: Macmillian 1998 In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Chinese people suffered what may have been the worst famine in history. Over thirty million perished in a grain shortage brought on not by flood, drought, or infestation, but by the insanely irresponsible dictates of Chairman Mao Ze-dong’s “Great Leap Forward,” an attempt at utopian engineering gone horribly wrong. Journalist Jasper Becker conducted hundreds of interviews and spent years immersed in painstaking detective work to produce Hungry Ghosts, the first full account of this dark chapter in Chinese history. In this horrific story of state-sponsored terror, cannibalism, torture, and murder, China’s communist leadership boasted of record harvests and actually increased grain exports, while refusing imports and international assistance.


China: A Century of Revolution: Ambrica Productions : 3 part documentary . 1. China in Revolution: describes the epic upheaval that began in China with the fall of the last emperor in 1911. 2.The Mao Years: a look at the next period of modern China’s history: Mao Zedong’s rule from 1949 to his death in 1976. 3. Born Under the Red Flag: examines China’s remarkable transformation after Mao’s death.

Rape of Nanking: China and Japan at War; Japanese Atrocities in Asia 2 DVD set DVD1: Rape of Nanking – Nanjing Massacre; DVD 2 (Atrocities): Unit 731, Hiroshima Asisa’s stolen Treasures, Sex Slaves and Comfort Women; Japanese Atrocities; Qing Dynasty Atrocities; Nazi Genocide


Art for the Millions 100 Sculptures from the Mao Era The exhibition focuses on a period in Chinese art that has so far received almost no critical examination, within or outside China. The importance of the visual art of the Mao era – and in articular the period of the Chinese Cultural Revolution – should not be underestimated. Its effect on the development of 20th century Chinese art, as well as on our understanding of its significance, is enormous. With this in mind, the exhibition uses an outstanding work – and its eventful and moving history from 1965 to today – to open the discussion and to contribute to exploring this largely untreated topic.

The Arts of China: University of California Press 2009 (edition 5) Michael Sullivan “For he fifth edition of his internationally renowned the Arts of China, Michael Sullivan has thoroughly revised and expanded every chapter of this classic history of Chines art from Neolithic period to the present day…” (publishers review)


The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades Jonathan Simon; Christopher Riley-Smith Oxford University Press 2001. In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, the story of the Crusades is told as never before in an engrossing, authoritative, and comprehensive history that ranges from the preaching of the First Crusade in 1095 to the legacy of the crusading ideals and imagery that continues today. The authors describe the elaborate social and civic systems that arose to support the Crusades–taxation, for example, was formalized by the Church and monarchs to raise enormous funds needed to wage war on this scale. And here are vivid descriptions of the battles themselves, frightening, disorienting, and dangerous affairs, with keen and insightful commentary on the reactions of the Muslims to a Christian holy war. Extensively illustrated with hundreds of photographs, paintings, drawings, maps, chronologies, and a guide to further reading.

History of the Crusades Against the Albigenses in the Thirteenth Century: Jean Charles L. Simonde de Sismondi Oxford University 1826 Digitized 2006

Daily Life During the Spanish Inquisition James Maxwell Anderson Greenwood Press 2002 The life of persecuted minorities, as well as that of the wealthy and the ordinary people of Spain during the Spanish Inquisition, comes alive in this illuminating account. For three and a half centuries, the Inquisition permeated every aspect of daily life in early modern Spain. This history depicts in graphic terms the dangers faced by Jews and Muslims and their suffering at the hands of the Inquisitors, as well as the struggle for survival of the lower classes and the ostentatious display of wealth of the high nobility.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages: Henry Charles lea Harbor Press 1955 Henry Charles Lea’s three volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages is still widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject. In Volume 1, Lea presents background information about the Inquisition – the events which occurred to prompt the church to establish the Inquisition, the ideas about the role of the church and government in society and man’s relationship to other men, the church, his government, and God that allowed the Inquisition to become established, and the form that the Inquisition took where it was introduced.


The Burning Times: Donna Read 1996: A look at the church’s systematic torture and burning of tens of thousands of women as “witches” from the 15th through the 17th centuries in order to destroy the subculture of midwives.


King Leopold’s Ghost: Adam Hochschild Houghton Mifflin 1998 In the 1880s, as the European powers were carving up Africa, King Leopold II of Belgium seized for himself the vast and mostly unexplored territory surrounding the Congo River. Carrying out a genocidal plundering of the Congo, he looted its rubber, brutalized its people, and ultimately slashed its population by ten million–all the while shrewdly cultivating his reputation as a great humanitarian. Heroic efforts to expose these crimes eventually led to the first great human rights movement of the twentieth century.

Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad, Ross C. Murfin Palgrave Macmillian 1996 Heart of Darkness, complete, authoritative text with biographical and historical contexts, critical history, and essary from f contemporary critical perspectives. Heart of Darkness has been considered for most of this century not only as a literary classic, but as a powerfun indictment of the evils of imperialism.

History of the Congo Ch.Didier Gondola Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002 This book begins with a survey of Congo’s early history, when diverse peoples such as the Luba, the Kuba, and the Nilotic inhabited the area, and continues by tracing the country’s history through the Belgian period of colonization and the dictatorships of Mobutu and Kabila. Biographical portraits present important figures in Congo’s storied history. An annotated bibliography and chronology help make this the most current and accessible introduction to this fascinating, complex, and long-suffering nation.

The Enough Project Congo Publications: The Enough Project is helping to build a permanent constituency to prevent genocide and crimes against humanity. Congo Publications are current working papers spotlighting the crisis in the Congo as it unfolds .


The Greatest Silence: Rape in the Congo Jackson Films 2009 “Lisa F. Jackson’s powerful, brutal film is the closest most of the women will ever come to justice.”
– Entertainment Weekly, #986, April 11, 2008

Lumumba Raoul Peck Director Zeitgeist 2000 The true story of the rise to power and brutal assassination of the formerly vilified and later redeemed leader of the independent Congo.



The History of Ethiopia Saheed A. Adejumobi Greenwood Publishing Group 2007. This engaging and informative historical narrative provides an excellent introduction to the history of Ethiopia from the classical era through the modern age. The acute historical analysis contained in this volume allows readers to critically interrogate shifting global power configurations from the late nineteenth century to the twentieth century, and the related implications in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa region.

Ethiopia, the United States and the Soviet Union David A. Korn. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Routledge, 1986 For a relatively brief period (1984), the sufferings of Ethiopia held a firm grip on the imagination of the Western public. The dusty famine camps, the hordes of hollow-cheeked children, the exhausted relief workers, the rock stars singing in choruses of concern, all were elements in a tragedy and a drama that became familiar to millions. Less effectively pictured was the mesh of historical, political, economic, diplomatic and military factors that played so central a role in the catastrophe and continue to thwart any lasting solution. In ”Ethiopia, the United States and the Soviet Union,” David A. Korn makes a serious and cogent effort to fit the great famine of 1984-85 into that larger context. (Excerpt from Ny Times Review)

Layers of Time: A History of EthiopiaPaul B. Henze Hurst & Co. 2000 Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world. Beginning with the Aksumite Empire, this book traces the country’s expansion southward during medieval times, its resistance to Muslim invasion, and, under energetic leaders, the defense of its independence during the European colonization of Africa. Rather than exploring only the major figures–kings, princes, and politicians–this volume also includes insights on daily life, art, architecture, religion, culture, customs, and observations by travelers.

Ethiopia Since the Derg Siegfried Pausewang, Kjetil Tronvoll, Lovise Aalen Zed Books, 2002 The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) came to power after winning an impressive military victory over the army dictatorship of Mengistu’s DERG just a decade ago. This volume is the outcome of an intensive monitoring, based on empirical research over the intervening years in various parts of Ethiopia, of the growing gap between the new regime’s democratic intentions and the very different outcome. Focusing in particular on the elections held in 2000 and 2001 but also providing a more wide-ranging presentation of issues and context, the contributors focus on various aspects, including gender dimensions, urban and rural contrasts, class and caste conflict, and environmental factors.

Ethiopian Ret Terror Trials: Transitional Justice Challenged Kjetil Tronvoll; Charles Schaefer & Girmachew Alemu Aneme James Curry Publishers 2009 This collection analyses the approach taken by the current government of Ethiopia to deal with the massive human rights violations that took place from 1974 to 1991 under the Derg regime


The Father: Director Ermias Woldeamlak 2000 The Ethiopian film The Father has been winning awards across Africa for portraying the horrors of the “Red Terror” campaign unleashed by deposed dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam more than 20 years ago.


Hiroshima:John Hersey Vintage Press, 1989When the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, few could have anticipated its potential for devastation. Pulitzer prize-winning author John Hersey recorded the stories of Hiroshima residents shortly after the explosion and, in 1946, Hiroshima was published, giving the world first-hand accounts from people who had survived it.

A Place Called Hiroshima Betty Jean Lifton A memorable, finely crafted, emotionally intense photographic essay that transports readers to the midst of all that Hiroshima has been, is, and perhaps, will be. Current and historical photographs of exceptional quality and emotional depth support an artfully composed text that weaves the history of the event amidst the currency of its effect and the constant questions of the future.

The Bells of Nagasaki Takashi Nagai As he lay dying of leukemia, Dr. Nagai wrote The Bells of Nagasaki, vividly recounting what he had seen with his own eyes and heard from his associates. It is a deeply moving and human story. He tells how it dawned on him that this awful havoc was indeed the work of an atomic bomb, how he speculated about the American scientists who had put it together, how he picked up a leaflet dropped by American planes warning the Japanese to accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, how he and his companions shed tears over the defeat of their country.

Hibakusha: Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki In this collection, accounts of the atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki from 25 survivors, the hibakusha. The survivors describe in detail their experiences, the human costs of the atomic attacks, and their attempts to cope with the terrible situations they faced.

Rain of Ruin Donald K. Goldstein, J. Michael Wenger, Katherine V. Dillon Pomegranate Artbooks 1995This photographic history of Hiroshima and Nagasaki provides the first comprehensive photographic record of the bombings and their aftermath, presenting a history of the two cities before and after the bomb’s drop and also including photos of American and Japanese politicians and military men involved in the bombing.

Nagasaki Journey: The Photographs of Yosuke Yamahata, August 10, 1945 Rupert Jenkins Editor Pomegranate Artbooks 1995 This compilation presents an extensive photographic record of the immediate aftermath of the bombing of Nagasaki with accompanying text. it shows the horrendous aftermath of the bombing through reprints of digitally restored negatives from pictures taken just a few days after the critical juncture in history.

Barefoot Gen: Keiji Nakazawa, Art Spiegelman, Project Gen 10 volumes Last Gasp Press 2005 Barefoot Gen is the powerful, tragic autobiographical story of the bombing of Hiroshima and its aftermath, seen through the eyes of the artist as a young boy growing up in Japan. The honest portrayal of emotions and experiences speaks to children and adults everywhere. Barefoot Gen serves as a reminder of the suffering war brings to innocent people, and as a unique documentation of an especially horrible source of suffering, the atomic bomb. Comprising nearly 2,000 pages, this series is considered the first of the “literary” graphic novel genre.


The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany William L. Shirer Simon and Schuster 1990 Since its publication in 1960, William L. Shirer’s monumental study of Hitler’s German Empire has been widely acclaimed as the definitive record of this century’s blackest hours. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich offers an unparalleled and thrillingly told examination of how Adolf Hitler nearly succeeded in conquering the world. With millions of copies in print around the globe, it has attained the status of a vital and enduring classic.

Searching for Meaning in the Holocaust Sidney M. Bolosky Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002 Scholars, survivors, and other interested parties have offered, over the years, their own interpretations of the meaning of the Holocaust and the lessons we can learn from it. However, the quest to find a rational explanation for this seemingly irrational course of events has led to both controversy and continued efforts at assigning meaning to this most horrible of events. Examining oral histories provided by survivors, written accounts and explanations, scholarly analysis, and commonly held assumptions, Bolkosky challenges the usual collection of platitudes about the lessons or the meanings we can derive from the Holocaust. Indeed, he argues against the kind of reductionism that such a quest for meaning has led to, and he analyzes the nature of the perpetrators in order to support his position on the inconclusivity of the study of the Holocaust. Dealing with the perpetrators of the Holocaust as manifestations of twentieth century civilized trends foreseen by the likes of Kafka, Ortega y Gassett, Arthur Koestler and Max Weber, Bolkosky suggests a new nature of evil and criminality along the lines developed by Hannah Arendt, Raul Hilberg, and Richard Rosenstein. Woven into the fabric of the text are insights from literary and historical writers, sociologists, and philosophers. This interdisciplinary attempt to shed new light on efforts to determine the meanings and lessons of the Holocaust provides readers with a challenging approach to considering the oral histories of survivors and the popular and professional assumptions surrounding this devastating moment in history.

The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Michael Berenbaum, Arnold Kramer, USHMM USHMM 2006 “The World Must Know” is a skillfully organized and clearly told account of the German Holocaust that consumed, with unparalleled malevolence, six million Jews and millions of innocent others — Protestants, Catholics, Poles, Russians, Gypsies, the handicapped, and so many others, adults and children. This important book, a vital guide through the unique corridors of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., merits the widest of audiences.” — Chaim Potok, author of The Chosen and The Promise The World Must Know documents the compelling human stories of the Holocaust as told in the renowned permanent exhibition of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. Drawing on the museum’s extensive collection of artifacts, archives, and eyewitness testimonies, and augmented with more than two hundred period photographs, this book serves as an enduring reminder of the moral obligations of societies and individuals.

Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans.and the Holocaust Daniel Jonah Goldhagen Vintage Books 1997 This groundbreaking international bestseller lays to rest many myths about the Holocaust: that Germans were ignorant of the mass destruction of Jews, that the killers were all SS men, and that those who slaughtered Jews did so reluctantly. Hitler’s Willing Executioners provides conclusive evidence that the extermination of European Jewry engaged the energies and enthusiasm of tens of thousands of ordinary Germans. Goldhagen reconstructs the climate of “eliminationist anti-Semitism” that made Hitler’s pursuit of his genocidal goals possible and the radical persecution of the Jews during the 1930s popular. Drawing on a wealth of unused archival materials, principally the testimony of the killers themselves, Goldhagen takes us into the killing fields where Germans voluntarily hunted Jews like animals, tortured them wantonly, and then posed cheerfully for snapshots with their victims. From mobile killing units, to the camps, to the death marches, Goldhagen shows how ordinary Germans, nurtured in a society where Jews were seen as unalterable evil and dangerous, willingly followed their beliefs to their logical conclusion.

Maus: A Survivor’s Tale Art Spiegelman Random House Inc 1997 It is the story of Vladek Speigelman, a Jewish survivor of Hitler’s Europe, and his son, a cartoonist coming to terms with his father’s story. Maus approaches the unspeakable through the diminutive. Its form, the cartoon (the Nazis are cats, the Jews mice), shocks us out of any lingering sense of familiarity. Maus is a haunting tale within a tale. Vladek’s harrowing story of survival is woven into the author’s account of his tortured relationship with his aging father. Against the backdrop of guilt brought by survival, they stage a normal life of small arguments and unhappy visits. This astonishing retelling of our century’s grisliest news is a story of survival, not only of Vladek but of the children who survive even the survivors. Maus studies the bloody pawprints of history and tracks its meaning for all of us.

Night Elie Wiesel Penguin 2008Born into a Jewish ghetto in Hungary, as a child, Elie Wiesel was sent to the Nazi concentration camps at Auschwitz and Buchenwald. This is his account of that atrocity: the ever-increasing horrors he endured, the loss of his family and his struggle to survive in a world that stripped him of humanity, dignity and faith. Describing in simple terms the tragic murder of a people from a survivor’s perspective, Night is among the most personal, intimate and poignant of all accounts of the Holocaust. A compelling consideration of the darkest side of human nature and the enduring power of hope, it remains one of the most important works of the twentieth century.

Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl Anne Frank Bantam Books 1993 Discovered in the attic in which she spent the last years of her life, Anne Frank’s remarkable diary has since become a world classic — a powerful reminder of the horrors of war and an eloquent testament to the human spirit. In 1942, with Nazis occupying Holland, a thirteen-year-old Jewish girl and her family fled their home in Amsterdam and went into hiding. For the next two years, until their whereabouts were betrayed to the Gestapo, they and another family lived cloistered in the “Secret Annex” of an old office building. Cut off from the outside world, they faced hunger, boredom, the constant cruelties of living in confined quarters, and the ever-present threat of discovery and death. In her diary Anne Frank recorded vivid impressions of her experiences during this period. By turns thoughtful, moving, and amusing, her account offers a fascinating commentary on human courage and frailty and a compelling self-portrait of a sensitive and spirited young woman whose promise was tragically cut short.


Who Will Carry the Word? Charlote Delbo Playwright / The Theater of the Holocaust edited by Robert Skloot Univ of Wisconsin Press, Madison WI 1982 Abstract: This play depicts the lives of women in a concentration camp. Hopelessness and death surround the characters in the play, yet the character of Claire maintains that they must not loose hope or their will to live, as someone must survive to tell the story. Charlotte Delbo, the playwright, survived Auschwitz and gives an extraordinarily accurate account in her play. The play is performed in a gray, stark manner in terms of costumes and props, reflecting the small difference between life and death in a concentration camp.

Playing for Time: Arthur Miller Playwright Dramatic Publishing company 1985 Abstract: Based on Fania Fenelon’s experiences while in a concentration camp orchestra, this play describes the terrible cruelties and inhumane treatment of concentration camp inmates. The orchestra had to play for hours at a time and while prisoners were being led to their death. The play also deals with the many complex relationships of the orchestra members.

Mister Fugue, or Earth Sick Liliane Atlan Playwright Plays of the Holocaust editor Elinor Fuchs Theatre Communications Group NY 1987 Abstract: This play won acclaim with its introduction in France in 1967. It has been performed in Poland, Israel, and the United States. The character of Mr. Fugue is loosely based on Janusz Korczak, a Polish-Jewish physician who accompanied orphaned children to Treblinka. Fugue in French translates to flight. Mister Fugue is a German soldier who is discovered befriending Jewish children. He is then to be taken to a death camp along with the children. They travel in the back of a truck. He tells stories and the children create games. The children also tell stories of marriage, children, the future, all the things they know they will not experience.



Europa Europa: Director Agnieszka Holland This wonderful film, based on an autobiography by Solomon Perel, concerns a Jewish-German boy who manages to conceal his identity from the Nazis and ends up a member of their Youth Party. An admirably full experience, the film is both black comedy and horror show, with the central character taking the full measure of everyone’s perspective on the war and Nazi crimes. –Tom Keogh An incredible true story of a teenage who survived the Holocaust.

The Last Days: Director James Moll In the last year of World War II, German defeat was inevitable. Yet rather than reinforcing his troops and focusing his efforts on battle, Hitler chose to renew his campaign to eliminate the Jews of Europe. Hungary, which had remained mostly untouched during the war, found her Jews being rounded up and shipped off to concentration camps where they were systematically and brutally killed during these last days. This documentary, directed by James Moll and produced through the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation, whose goal is to document the memories of those who lived through the Holocaust, records the stories of five Hungarian Jews who managed to survive.

Schindler’s List Director Steven Spielberg Adapted from the best-selling book by Thomas Keneally and filmed in Poland with an emphasis on absolute authenticity, Spielberg’s masterpiece ranks among the Though only a short subject, this groundbreaking documentary remains one of the most influential and powerful explorations of the Holocaust ever made.

Night and Fog Director Alain Resnais bluntly presents an indictment not only of the Nazis but of the world community, and the film is all the more remarkable for its harsh judgment considering the time in which it was made, less than a decade after the end of the war, when questions of responsibility were not yet being addressed. Juxtaposing archival clips from the concentration camps across Germany and Poland with the present-day denials of the camps’ existence, the film seeks to once and for all expose the horrifying truth of the Final Solution, as well as to address the continuing anti-Semitism and bigotry that existed long after the war’s end. An invaluable resource and testament to history, this film was a profound influence on all films to address issues of the Holocaust, from Judgment at Nuremberg and Shoah to Schindler’s List. Night and Fog remains an essential and indispensable document of the 20th century. –Robert Lane greatest films ever made about the Holocaust during World War II. It’s a film about heroism with an unlikely hero at its center–Catholic war profiteer Oskar Schindler (Liam Neeson), who risked his life and went bankrupt to save more than 1,000 Jews from certain death in concentration camps.

Shoah Director Claude Lanzmann To write a review of a film such as Shoah seems an impossible task: how to sum up one of the most powerful discourses on film in such a way as to make people realize that this is a documentary of immense consequence, a documentary that is not easy to watch but important to watch, a documentary that not only records the facts, but bears witness. We are commanded “Never forget”; this film helps us to fulfill that mandate, reverberating with the viewer long after the movie has ended. Yes, Holocaust films are plentiful, both fictional and non-, with titles such as The Last Days, Schindler’s List, and Life Is Beautiful entering the mainstream. But this is not a film about the Holocaust per se; this is a film about people. It’s a meandering, nine-and-a-half-hour film that never shows graphic pictures or delves into the political aspects of what happened in Europe in the 1930s and ’40s, but talks with survivors, with SS men, with those who witnessed the extermination of 6 million Jews.



United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

International Association of Genocide Scholar

International Criminal Court:

Encyclopedia of Mass Violence :

Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect:

International Crisis Group:

International Center of Transitional Justice: